PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT

PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 

The primary function of a wellhead oil and gas production facility is separation of the wellstream into discrete natural gas, crude oil, water and solid streams. We offer a range of separation equipment to serve these needs.

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Overview
Sand separators are an integral part of the wellhead equipment necessary to protect downstream production equipment from both frac sand returns and well-formation produced sand.

Depending on the completion technique, some well streams tend to carry quantities of sand and sediment with the oil and gas production. Unless a separator is properly designed to handle this sand, the outlet liquid connections, bottom of the separator, and other connections in the liquid section will become plugged with sand, and the separator will become inoperative.

How it Works
The KWI sand separator is designed to handle wellhead production with sand. The liquid outlet connections are on the bottom of the separator, and other connections in the liquid section are design to operate effectively with this sand coming from wellhead production.

KWI Advantage
Double weir allows for longevity.  L-Shaped Skid and lifting lugs allows for easy movement. Accessible drains allow for easy sand removal.

What We Need to Know
• Gas Flow Rate MMSCF / Day
• Shut in Tubing Pressure
• Liquid Rate BBL / Day
• Quantity of Sand / Day (if available)
• Flowing Temperature
• Specific Gravity
• Sour Gas, H2S Content ppm
• CO2, mol %

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Overview
Gas Filter Separators are designed specifically for the removal of particles and dust from gas streams. These contaminants usually exist with the bulk of the particles having diameters considerably less than 10 microns; therefore, filter separators are preferred since standard separators or scrubbers have difficulty in effectively removing these minute particles.

Gas Coalescing Filters are designed to remove all of mists and fogs from the gas stream with the bulk of the particles having diameters  down to 0.3 microns.


How it Works
Filter Separators:   A horizontal vessel containing two chambers. The first inlet section contains the filter elements for the removal of solid particles mounted to a tubesheet. The second section contains a mist extractor for the removal of any liquid droplets down to approximately 10 microns. The gas flow enters the first section and flows through the filter elements from the outside to inside where the solid particles are removed. The gas then travels through the inside of the element to the second section where the liquid particles can be removed through the mist extractor.   A liquid accumulation boot is provided to properly collect and discharge the liquid for further processing or disposal.

 

Coalescing Filter Separators: A vertical vessel containing two chambers. The lower inlet chamber is used as a free liquid integral scrubber. The upper section consists of tubesheet for the mounting of the coalescing elements on stand pipes. The gas flow enters the lower section where any free liquids will drop out of the gas stream to be removed via a level control and dump valve. The gas stream then travels upward through the tubesheet into the coalescing elements inside to outside. The element forces small liquid particles to agglomerate (coalesce) forming larger drops or particles as it progresses through the element. The resulting larger droplets fall to the bottom of the upper section to be removed via a level control and dump valve. The gas stream then flows out through the side separator section. A liquid removal efficiency of 0.3 micron can be obtained in this configuration.


KWI Advantage
KWI utilizes quick opening closures which allow for easy and rapid access to the Horizontal Filter assembly for cartridge replacement. All Horizontal Filter elements are readily accessible and can be changed quickly. KWI, as a standard, furnishes pressure taps for measuring differential pressure across the elements.

KWI offers a choice of either wire mesh or vane type mist extractors while providing ASME Code construction throughout.  We also provide an inventory of finished equipment for fast delivery consisting of various sizes that will meet a wide range of capacities. High temperature Horizontal Filter elements are available for use with molecular sieve and short-cycle hydrocarbon recover units.

KWI Horizontal Filter Separators can be designed/configured with special coalescing elements to assist with the removal of entrained liquids. A second boot, or vertical leg separator, may also be added to assist with fluid collection. Small diameter units are available in both vertical and horizontal models.


What We Need to Know
• Gas Flow Rate MMSCF / Day
• Target micron size, min. & max.
• Sales Line Pressure
• Condensate or Oil Flow Rate, BBL / Day
• Water Flow Rate BBL / Day
• Flowing Temperature
• Specific Gravity
• Sour Gas, H2S Content ppm
• CO2 mol %

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Overview
KWI builds a full line of Two and Three Phase Separators to meet any application with sizes ranging from 12 inch to 60-inch diameter in stock for immediate delivery.  Separators constructed as Vertical or Horizontal with operating pressure from 125 psig to 1440 psig.  Separators for exceptional conditions can be manufactured to engineered specifications.

How it Works
Separators are mechanical devices for removing and collecting liquids from natural gas. A properly designed separator will also provide for the release of entrained gases from the accumulated hydrocarbon liquids.  A well production separator design is a primary-phase separation of the mostly liquid hydrocarbons from those that are mostly gas, refine the primary separation by removing most of the entrained liquid mist from the gas,  separate the entrained gas from the accumulated liquid, and insure that no re-entrainment of one into the other takes place.

The KWI goal for ideal separator selection and design is to separate the wellstream into liquid-free gas and gas-free liquid. Ideally, the gas and liquids reach some state of equilibrium at the existing conditions of pressure and temperature within the vessel. As it is generally not economically justifiable to separate to the state of true equilibrium, and KWI uses industry consensus standards as to liquid retention time for solution gas break-out and liquid carry-over in the gas have been set. The process equipment and conditions downstream of a separator will often dictate the necessary degree of separation.


KWI Advantage

With these functions are to be accomplished, KWI separators are carefully designed to control and dissipate the energy of the wellstream as it enters separator;  to insure that the gas and liquid flow rates are low enough so that gravity segregation and vapor-liquid equilibrium can occur;  minimize turbulence in the gas section of the separator and reduce velocity; eliminate re-entrainment of the separated liquid into the gas; accumulate and control froths and foams in the vessel; provide outlets for gases and liquids with suitable controls to maintain pre-set operating pressure and liquid levels; provide relief for excessive pressure in case the gas or liquid outlets should become plugged or valves malfunction; provide equipment (pressure gauges, thermometers, and liquid-level gauge assemblies) to visually check the separator for proper operation; provide cleanout opening at points where solids will accumulate when solids are present in the inlet stream.


What We Need to Know
• Gas Flow Rate MMSCF / Day
• Sales Line Pressure
• Oil Rate BBL / Day
• Water Rate BBL / Day
• Flowing Temperature
• Specific Gravity
• Gas Composition showing H2S ppm (Sour Gas) and CO2 mol%
• The densities of the gas and liquids, if available.
• The viscosities of the gas and liquids.
• Temperature and pressure of production stream.
• Particle sizes of liquids in the gas phase or gas in the liquid phase.
• Identification of impurities or special conditions such as H2S,
CO2, pipe scale, dust, foam, fogs, etc.
• Instantaneous flow rates (slugs or heading)

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Overview
Use to Collect liquids that have settled in flow lines which can overload the gas / liquid handling capacity of the plant especially during pigging operations.

What We Need to Know
• Gas Flow Rate MMSCF / Day
• Shut in Tubing Pressure
• Liquid Rate BBL / Day
• Quantity of Sand / Day (if available)
• Flowing Temperature
• Specific Gravity
• Sour Gas, H2S Content ppm
• CO2, mol %

Information coming soon.

Natural gas contains water vapor that cannot be removed with separators or filters. This water vapor can condense and turn to liquid water, which can corrode or block downstream pipelines and equipment.

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Overview
KWI TEG Gas Dehydration Units (GDU) are designed to remove water vapor from Natural Gas Streams in the more serviceable and cost effective manner while maintaining industry standard design and code  and best practice layouts for serviceable design.

For more than 50 years, KWI has successfully offered outstanding designs for a range of gas dehydration applications with equipment clearly superior in its ability to extract water vapor from natural gas.
All units can be equipped with a BTEX removal system and a burner management system.

How it Works
All natural gas production contains water in a vapor state that cannot be removed with mechanical separators and/or filters. This water vapor can condense and turn to liquid water or form solid hydrates and damage or plug downstream pipelines and equipment.  The majority of pipeline quality specifications for natural gas provide that the water vapor content in natural gas should not exceed 7 pounds per million standard cubic feet.

KWI Advantage
KWI has built one of the stronger service and field repair/installation teams in the US industry.  This capability and a portfolio of standard product equipment designs gives its  KWI customers a decided advantage over all other GDU equipment suppliers.

With its manufacturing and service departments in close proximity, this gives KWI a decided advantage over its competitor.


What We Need to Know
• Gas Flow Rate MMSCF / Day
• Target micron size, min. & max.
• Sales Line Pressure
• Condensate or Oil Flow Rate, BBL / Day
• Water Flow Rate BBL / Day
• Operating Temperature
• Specific Gravity
• Sour Gas, H2S Content ppm
• CO2 mol %

KWI’s Conditioning Systems are designed for the treatment of combustion turbine and engine fuel gas, as well as processing and treating of wellhead gas prior to transmission & distribution. In these applications, filtration and conditioning of natural gas is required for the performance of the turbine/engine, as well as for meeting stringent pipeline specifications for transmission of the treated gas to market.

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Overview
KWI’s  JT NGL Extraction / Hydrocarbon Dew Point Extraction units are designed to recover valuable hydrocarbon liquids on an operator friendly basis while preparing the gas to meet required pipeline specifications. The JT is design for high pressure remote well service where common-point gas gathering facilities are not available.  The KWI JT is self-contained and compact, minimizing valuable site easement and access. And as an option, KWI offers a skid mounted 20,000 gallon NGL Tank for product storage.

The KWI JT unit condenses and removes the heavier component hydrocarbon in the inlet gas stream and reduces the GPM (gallons of liquefiable hydrocarbon per Mscf ) content and thus, reducing the temperature at which free Natural Gas Liquids might form. The amount of natural gas liquids recovered is a function of the gas composition, pressure, temperature,  pressure drop available across the JT valve.

These NGLs if not effectively reduced make the produced natural gas undesirable to pipeline transportation and commercial use.

The KWI JT consists of an inlet gas/outlet gas exchanger,  inlet gas/NGL exchanger,  temperature controlled hot gas bypass control, JT expansion valve, methanol pump and a NGL recovery separator.

KWI Advantage

Acceptance into major pipeline gas transportation by attaining the required Hydrocarbon Dew Point.
Increasing revenue by extracting the valuable Natural Gas Liquids.
Improved gas handling capacity through a facility into the downstream gathering and/or gas pipeline.
Operational flexibility by improving the natural gas sales options for remote locations where gas processing facilities are not available.
Improved hydrate formation protection by automatic temperature control and by the addition of an NGL product exchanger before the NGL liquid control valve.
KWI knowledge of gas dehydration systems that will minimize the amount of  methanol injection rates for hydrate protection.

What We Need to Know
• Gas Flow Rate
• Gas Chromatograph Analysis
• Sales Line Pressure
• Inlet Gas or Wellhead Pressure Available
• Inlet Gas Flowing Temperature
• Pipeline or Gathering Line Specifications for Hydrocarbon Dew Point or iC5+ Component Limitation

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Overview
Wellhead production units were developed in response to producers’ requests for a completely integrated and pre-assembled package to provide heating and separating capabilities. These units consist of an indirect heater and a vertical or horizontal separator, mounted on a structural steel skid with interconnecting piping and instrumentation installed, ready for operation. The basic components are standard units; each sized and selected for the customer’s needs. The components as well as the complete unit have high salvage value and can be easily adapted for other applications. In addition, a low-pressure separator can be added to the assembly to provide two-stage separation. Also, the separators can be furnished for three-phase instead of two-phase operation. The un-housed or open units are designed for moderate climates and give efficient operation at a minimum of cost. The enclosed units are designed for cold climates to give efficient operation with freedom from freeze-ups.

 

How it Works
The wellstream enters the heater coil inlet and passes through the coil to the choke valve on the separator inlet. Pressure is reduced as the wellstream passes through the choke and into the separator. The separator inlet deflector forces the liquid against  the separator shell and allows the gas to be released. The liquid slides along the shell and downward into the liquid accumulation section. The liquid level control in the liquid accumulation section then discharges the liquid to storage. The gas moves upward from the inlet and through the wire mesh mist extractor before leaving the separator through the top outlet connection.

A thermostat in the separator controls the heater-firing rate to maintain the well stream at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent the formation of hydrates in the separator. The thermostat in the heater shell is set as a high temperature shutdown to prevent the water bath from overheating.

 

KWI Advantage
Each basic component is sized individually, based upon the customer’s wellstream characteristics. Indirect heaters are selected from   the At KWI, each basic component is sized individually, based upon the customer’s wellhead production stream characteristics. Indirect heaters are selected from the wide range of standard firebox sizes and coil sizes to provide sufficient heat to control the separation temperature at the optimum level. This provides fuel economy and increased liquid recovery without problems from hydrates and freeze-up. High pressure coils with working pressure up to 10,000 psig, and split coils with chokes are available.
The KWI separator is selected from the wide range of sizes and working pressures available from KWI’s standard lines.  This is also required when sizing the indirect heater to assure that an adequate firebox is furnished. The operating pressure of the separator is normally dictated by the gas sales line pressure. The selection of a three-phase separator versus a two-phase separator will depend upon whether or not water is expected with the production, either initially or later as the reservoir ages. Horizontal separators may be selected for the customer’s application to provide a more compact assembly of high capacity.

Using all KWI standard equipment provides field-proven performance designs for dependability and to provide maximum interchangeability.

KWI stocks standard KWI unhoused units with separators in various combinations. KWI offers the flexibility to fabricate the unit as required to customers’ specification, including:

1. Maximum liquid recovery as a result of operating at the lowest possible gas and liquid temperature under controlled conditions.  In KW International production units, the wellhead production stream separation temperature is controlled directly from the separator
2. Unattended operation, plus easy installation and start-up, help put more profits into well production
3. Instrumentation, valves, removable coils, and removable fireboxes offer easy maintenance
4. Optimum-sized heater and separators provide fast start-up, effective heat transfer, and low operating costs
5. KW International units incorporate several safety features such as flame arrestors, “Safe Trap” fuel gas scrubbers, ASME Code construction separators, and API 12-K specification heater flow coils. A wide variety of optional safety features are available
6. Enclosed units are available upon request and designed to meet a customer’s requirements for safe and dependable cold weather operation.

What We Need to Know
• Gas Flow Rate, Mscf
• Liquid,  Oil or Condensate and Water Flow Rates, Bbl per day
• Shut-in Tubing Pressure Design on WellHead.
• Inlet Conditions including Flow Pressure and Flowing Temperature
•  Outlet Pressures required.
• Outlet Temperature required.
• Sour Service Design (yes/no)
• CO2, mol %
• H2S, ppm

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Overview
With a variety of applications from heating of natural gas to the heating of sour crude they provide a dependable resource in processing petroleum products. Indirect heaters transfer heat to the process stream through a heat transfer medium surrounding both the firebox and the process flow coil.
KWI sizing of direct-fired heaters requires determination of the process heat load so that a firebox capacity can be selected. 10% is added to the process heat load for the un-insulated shell losses and we then recommend a unit with a firebox capacity equal to or greater than the total heat load.
The heating of natural gas, condensate and crude oil is an essential process step for nearly every oil and gas production lease or processing facility.

 

How it Works
Indirect heaters transfer heat to the process stream through a heat transfer medium, surrounding both the firebox and the process flow coil. Variations are required in the equipment design and accessories furnished, depending upon the bath media and process requirements. Therefore, the four types of indirect heaters are distinguishable by the heat transfer medium they are designed to use. Bath indirect heater has a temperature range of 60°F to 190°F.

Fuel gas is burned within the horizontal “U”-shaped firebox immersed in the lower portion of the water bath. Heat released by the burning fuel gas is quickly transmitted through the firebox wall to the water bath, maintaining it at the desired temperature.  The fluid to be heated (full well stream, natural gas, oil, water, etc.) is conducted through the flow coil of the heater which is immersed in the upper portion of the water bath. Heat is conducted from the hot water bath through the tube-wall to the fluid inside the flow coil.

The heater temperature controller maintains the water bath temperature at the desired level by controlling the firebox fuel gas supply. A temperature of 190°F is considered the optimum temperature at which the bath of this type heater should operate. At temperatures above 190°F, water loss can be expected to increase. A water bath temperature of 190°F provides the designer with the temperature to use in MTD calculations for an optimized coil selection. Heaters in service may be operated at water bath temperatures less than 190°F when inlet condition and/or outlet temperature requirements allow.

KWI Advantage

KWI’s design of its Water Bath Indirect Line Heaters have a proven track record in the oil and gas industry, and KWI maintains a large inventory of line heater equipment in stock.

KWI has developed several types of heaters in order to accommodate various applications, including:• Water Bath Indirect Heaters
• Salt Bath Indirect Heaters
• Oil Bath Indirect Heaters
• Steam Bath Indirect Heaters
• Steam Generators

What We Need to Know
• Gas Flow Rate MMSCF / Day
• Well Shut In Pressure
• Well Flowing Pressure
• Sales Line Pressure
• Oil Rate BBL / Day
• Water Rate BBL / Day
• Flowing Temperature of Process Stream; Ambient Air Temperatures, high/low or location.
• Specific Gravity
• Sour Gas
• CO2

In today’s market, the high value of hydrocarbon liquids makes it essential that you install reliable, high-performing systems for treating the liquids, maximizing recovery, and transporting and storing them safely.

Information coming soon

Information coming son.